Not sure who makes it. Never saw one with a "pocket". Can you remove the follower, reach inside with a tool dental tool, hook, etc. What about drilling a small hole through the bottom of the "pocket", so that you could use a small punch or nail, to push the block up, out of the "pocket", allowing the cap to be removed. Haven't tried it yet but I will tonight. Looks like RifleGear. I tried to look on Riflegear's website and can't find it though.
I had experience with a similar looking one where the only way to remove it is to drill the plastic coupon piece protruding out and essentially damage the floorplate that the spring attaches to. The one I had experience with had "RifleGear" embossed into the mag block. The piece sticking out of the baseplate is a plastic coupon that inserts into the mag block like a hook and locks in the baseplate such that you can't easily disassemble the mag. It is possible to remove it though. The notice shall be separate and distinct from the language charging the current offense, and shall not be read or otherwise disclosed to the jury if the case proceeds to trial before a jury.
The existence of a prior conviction and the factual circumstances establishing the required relationship between the defendant and the victim of the prior assault or assault and battery may be established by any evidence that is relevant for that purpose, including, but not limited to, 1 or more of the following:. Assault with intent to commit murder—Any person who shall assault another with intent to commit the crime of murder, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for life or any number of years. Assault with intent to maim—Any person who shall assault another with intent to maim or disfigure his person by cutting out or maiming the tongue, putting out or destroying an eye, cutting or tearing off an ear, cutting or slitting or mutilating the nose or lips or cutting off or disabling a limb, organ or member, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 10 years or by fine of not more than 5, dollars.
Assault with intent to commit felony, not otherwise punished—Any person who shall assault another, with intent to commit any burglary, or any other felony, the punishment of which assault is not otherwise in this act prescribed, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 10 years, or by fine of not more than 5, dollars.
Assault with intent to rob and steal being unarmed—Any person, not being armed with a dangerous weapon, who shall assault another with force and violence, and with intent to rob and steal, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 15 years. Assault with intent to rob and steal being armed—Any person, being armed with a dangerous weapon, or any article used or fashioned in a manner to lead a person so assaulted reasonably to believe it to be a dangerous weapon, who shall assault another with intent to rob and steal shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for life, or for any term of years.
Sexual intercourse under pretext of medical treatment—Any person who shall undertake to medically treat any female person, and while so treating her, shall represent to such female that it is, or will be, necessary or beneficial to her health that she have sexual intercourse with a man, and shall thereby induce her to have carnal sexual intercourse with any man, and any man, not being the husband of such female, who shall have sexual intercourse with her by reason of such representation, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 10 years.
If a person intentionally commits conduct proscribed under sections 81 to 89 against a pregnant individual, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for life or any term of years if all of the following apply:. A person who intentionally commits conduct proscribed under sections 81 to 89 against a pregnant individual is guilty of a crime as follows:.
A person who commits a grossly negligent act against a pregnant individual is guilty of a crime as follows:. A person who engages in conduct proscribed under section 1 or 3 of the Michigan vehicle code, PA , MCL However, this subsection does not exempt the mother from any other provision of law. A plaintiff who prevails in a civil action brought under this section may recover both of the following:.
Attempt to murder by poisoning, etc. Attempt to commit crime—Any person who shall attempt to commit an offense prohibited by law, and in such attempt shall do any act towards the commission of such offense, but shall fail in the perpetration, or shall be intercepted or prevented in the execution of the same, when no express provision is made by law for the punishment of such attempt, shall be punished as follows:. If the offense attempted to be committed is such as is punishable with death, the person convicted of such attempt shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 10 years;.
If the offense so attempted to be committed is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for life, or for 5 years or more, the person convicted of such attempt shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 5 years or in the county jail not more than 1 year;. Removing or destroying bank bonds in state treasury—Any person who shall take from the state treasury, contrary to the provisions of law, or shall deface or destroy any of the bonds therein deposited by any of the banks of this state, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 10 years.
Issuing bank bills, etc. Issuing or circulating spurious bank notes—Any person who shall, with intent to defraud, sign, issue or put in circulation any note or bill, purporting to be a bill or note of any bank, when no such bank exists, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 10 years or by fine of not more than 5, dollars. Fraudulent disposal of property of bank by officers, etc.
Private banks—On and after the effective date of this act, it shall be unlawful for any individual person, or unincorporated association of individual persons, to engage in the business of banking, as defined in Act No. From and after the passage of this act, no person or association of persons, not incorporated under the banking laws of this state and not now engaged in the private banking business, shall open up or attempt to operate any private bank, and any such operation or attempt shall be a violation of this section, and the persons so operating or attempting to operate shall be guilty of a felony: Provided, That nothing in this section contained shall be construed to prohibit the surviving partner or partners of a copartnership from continuing the operation of any private bank operated by such copartnership at the time this act shall take effect.
Certifying checks without amount thereof actually standing to credit of drawer—It shall not be lawful for any officer, clerk, agent or employe of a bank to certify a check unless the amount thereof actually stands to the credit of the drawer upon the books of the bank, or to resort to any device, or receive any fictitious obligations, direct or collateral, in order to evade the provisions of this prohibition; and any officer, clerk, agent or employe who shall attempt any such evasion shall be guilty of a felony.
Receiving deposits, etc. Punishment—Any person who shall wilfully blaspheme the holy name of God, by cursing or contumeliously reproaching God, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. Cursing and swearing—Any person who has arrived at the age of discretion, who shall profanely curse or damn or swear by the name of God, Jesus Christ or the Holy Ghost, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.
No such prosecution shall be sustained unless it shall be commenced within 5 days after the commission of such offense. Fitting out vessel with intent to destroy the same—Any person who shall lade, equip or fit out, or assist in lading, equipping or fitting out any ship, boat or vessel, with intent that the same shall be cast away, burnt, sunk or otherwise destroyed, to injure or defraud any owner or insurer of such ship, boat or vessel, or of any property laden on board the same, shall be guilty of a felony.
Making false invoice of cargo—The owner of any ship, boat or vessel, or of any property laden, or pretended to be laden on board the same, and any other person concerned in the lading or fitting out of any such ship, boat or vessel, who shall make out or exhibit, or cause to be made out or exhibited, any false or fraudulent invoice, bill of lading, bill of parcels or other false estimates of any goods or property laden or pretended to be laden on board such ship, boat or vessel, with intent to injure or defraud any insurer of such ship, boat or vessel or property, or of any part thereof, shall be guilty of a felony.
Breaking lock, etc. Removing boat from fastenings, etc. Mooring vessel to buoy or beacon—Any person mooring any ship, boat or vessel to any of the buoys or beacons placed in any of the waters of the state, by the authority of the United States, or in any manner hanging on with a boat or vessel to any such buoy or beacon, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.
Any person who, wilfully and without authority, takes possession of or uses any vessel, as defined in Act No. Burglary with explosives—Any person who enters any building, and for the purpose of committing any crime therein, uses or attempts to use nitro-glycerine, dynamite, gunpowder or any other high explosive, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not less than 15 years nor more than 30 years.
Subsection 1 does not apply if the breaking and entering or entering without breaking was committed by a peace officer or an individual under the peace officer's direction in the lawful performance of his or her duties as a peace officer. Possession of burglar's tools—Any person who shall knowingly have in his possession any nitroglycerine, or other explosive, thermite, engine, machine, tool or implement, device, chemical or substance, adapted and designed for cutting or burning through, forcing or breaking open any building, room, vault, safe or other depository, in order to steal therefrom any money or other property, knowing the same to be adapted and designed for the purpose aforesaid, with intent to use or employ the same for the purpose aforesaid, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 10 years.
Bribery of public officer—Any person who shall corruptly give, offer or promise to any public officer, agent, servant or employe, after the election or appointment of such public officer, agent, servant or employe and either before or after such public officer, agent, servant or employe shall have been qualified or shall take his seat, any gift, gratuity, money, property or other valuable thing, the intent or purpose of which is to influence the act, vote, opinion, decision or judgment of such public officer, agent, servant or employe, or his action on any matter, question, cause or proceeding, which may be pending or may by law be brought before him in his public capacity, or the purpose and intent of which is to influence any act or omission relating to any public duty of such officer, agent, servant or employe, shall be guilty of a felony.
Public officer accepting bribe—Any executive, legislative or judicial officer who shall corruptly accept any gift or gratuity, or any promise to make any gift, or to do any act beneficial to such officer, under an agreement, or with an understanding that his vote, opinion or judgment shall be given in any particular manner, or upon a particular side of any question, cause or proceeding, which is or may be by law brought before him in his official capacity, or that in such capacity, he shall make any particular nomination or appointment, shall forfeit his office, and be forever disqualified to hold any public office, trust or appointment under the constitution or laws of this state, and shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 10 years, or by fine of not more than 5, dollars.
Juror, etc. It shall be unlawful for any person to attempt to record or to record the deliberation of a jury in any case. Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. Bribery of officers of public institutions by persons having contracts therewith—Any person interested directly or indirectly in a contract with a state or municipal institution who shall corruptly give, offer or promise to any officer of such institution any bribe, gift, or gratuity whatever, with intent to improperly influence his official action under such contract, shall be guilty of felony.
However, if that defendant is charged with an offense against the criminal laws of this state, an officer convicted under this section may be punished by any fine or by any term of imprisonment or both a fine and imprisonment, within the limits fixed by the statute that the defendant is charged with having violated. Any person who corruptly gives, offers or promises to any person engaged in amateur or professional baseball, boxing, wrestling or other competitive athletic pursuits, any gift, gratuity or valuable thing whatever, with intent to influence him to lose or try to lose, or to affect the result in any way of, any contest in which he is participating or expects to participate; or any person engaged in amateur or professional baseball, boxing, wrestling or other competitive athletic pursuits, who corruptly solicits or accepts a gift, gratuity or valuable thing, or a promise to make a gift or to do an act beneficial to himself, under an agreement or with the understanding that he shall lose or try to lose, or to affect the result in any way of, any contest in which he is participating or expects to participate, shall be guilty of a felony.
The customary nature of a transaction is not a defense in a proceeding or prosecution under this section. Truthful testimony, evidence, or other truthful information compelled under this section and any information derived directly or indirectly from that truthful testimony, evidence, or other truthful information shall not be used against the witness in a criminal case, except for impeachment purposes or in a prosecution for perjury or otherwise failing to testify or produce evidence as required. Intent of chapter—It is the intention of this chapter to prevent, punish and prohibit within this state, the business now engaged in and conducted in places commonly known and designated as bucket shops, and also to include the practice now commonly known as bucket shopping by any person or persons, agents, corporations, associations or copartnerships who or which ostensibly carry on the business or occupation of commission merchants or brokers in grain, provisions, cotton, coffee, petroleum, stocks, bonds or other commodities whatsoever.
The said crime shall be complete against any proprietor, person, agent or keeper thus offering to make any such contracts, trades or transactions, whether such offer is accepted or not. Punishment—Any corporation, association, copartnership, person or persons, or agent, who shall keep or cause to be kept within this state, any bucket shop, and any corporation, person or persons, or agents whether acting individually or as a member or as an officer, agent or employe or any corporation, association or copartnership, who shall keep, maintain or assist in the keeping and maintaining, of any such bucket shop within this state, shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 2 years or by a fine of not less than dollars or more than 1, dollars.
The continuance of such establishment after the first conviction shall be deemed a second offense and if the offender be a corporation, it shall be liable to forfeiture of all its rights and privileges as such. Accessories—Any corporation, association or copartnership, person or persons or his agent or agents who shall communicate, receive, exhibit or display in any manner, any statements of quotations of the prices of any property mentioned in the second section of the chapter with a view to any transaction or transactions in this chapter prohibited, shall be deemed an accessory, and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined and punished the same as the principal, as provided in the next preceding section of this chapter.
This subsection does not apply if the lack of funds is due to garnishment, attachment, levy, or other lawful cause and that fact was not known to the person when the person made, drew, uttered, or delivered the check, draft, or order. For purposes of this subparagraph, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subdivision a.
Evidence of intent to defraud, etc. Notice of protest as evidence of intent to defraud, etc. A criminal investigation shall not be initiated solely on the basis of a newborn being surrendered to an emergency service provider under chapter XII of the probate code of , PA , MCL Subsection 1 applies to an attending physician who delivers a live newborn as a result of an attempted abortion and fails to comply with the requirements of the born alive infant protection act. Child abuse in the first degree is a felony punishable by imprisonment for life or any term of years.
The defendant has the burden of establishing the affirmative defense by a preponderance of the evidence. As used in this subsection, "domestic violence" means that term as defined in section 1 of PA , MCL A dealer in second-hand goods, junk shop keeper, peddler, rag or paper buyer, pawnbroker or hawker who purchases either directly or indirectly or by his agent or clerk, any goods, thing, article or articles from a minor without the written consent of the parent or guardian of the minor shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. A person who in any manner interferes or attempts to interfere with the custody of any child who has been adjudged to be dependent, neglected, or delinquent pursuant to chapter XIIA of the probate code of , PA , MCL A.
A minor child under 17 years of age shall not be permitted to remain in a dance hall, saloon, barroom or any place where spirituous or intoxicating liquor, wine or beer, or any beverage, liquor or liquors containing spirituous or intoxicating liquor, beer or malt liquor is sold, given away or furnished for a beverage, unless the minor is accompanied by parent or guardian. A proprietor, keeper or manager of any such place who permits a minor child to remain in any such place, and a person who encourages or induces in any way the minor child to enter the place or to remain therein shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor.
This section shall not prevent a township, village or city from establishing, by ordinance, regulations more stringent than the provisions of this act relative to the attendance of a minor at theaters, movie houses, bowling or billiard halls and dance halls. This section shall not prevent a township, village or city from establishing, by ordinance, regulations permitting the attendance of minor children at dances where no spirituous or intoxicating liquor, beer or malt liquor is sold, given away or consumed in the dance area.
A person who sells, gives away or in any way furnishes to a person under the age of 18 years a book, pamphlet, or other printed paper or other thing, containing obscene language, or obscene prints, pictures, figures or descriptions tending to corrupt the morals of youth, or any newspapers, pamphlets or other printed paper devoted to the publication of criminal news, police reports, or criminal deeds, and a person who shall in any manner hire, use or employ a person under the age of 18 years to sell, give away, or in any manner distribute such books, pamphlets or printed papers, and any person having the care, custody or control of a person under the age of 18 years, who permits him or her to engage in any such employment, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.
Exhibition of obscene matter within view of children—Any person who shall exhibit upon any public street or highway, or in any other place within the view of children passing on any public street or highway, any book, pamphlet or other printed paper or thing containing obscene language or obscene prints, figures, or descriptions, tending to the corruption of the morals of youth, or any newspapers, pamphlets, or other printed paper or thing devoted to the publication of criminal news, police reports or criminal deeds, shall on conviction thereof be guilty of a misdemeanor.
Licensed boarding homes for children—Any person who maintains a boarding home for children, unless licensed therefor by the state welfare commission, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. Any person who has in his custody or control for a longer period than 30 days, 1 or more children under the age of 15 years unattended by a parent or guardian, except children related to him by blood or marriage, for the purpose of providing such child or children with care, food and lodging, shall be deemed to maintain a boarding home for children: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be construed to apply to the legal guardian of the child.
Contributing to neglect or delinquency of children—Any person who shall by any act, or by any word, encourage, contribute toward, cause or tend to cause any minor child under the age of 17 years to become neglected or delinquent so as to come or tend to come under the jurisdiction of the juvenile division of the probate court, as defined in section 2 of chapter 12a of Act No.
A The average individual, applying contemporary community standards, would find the depiction, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest. B The reasonable person would find the depiction, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. C The depiction depicts or describes a listed sexual act in a patently offensive way.
Erotic fondling does not include physical contact, even if affectionate, that is not for the purpose of real or simulated overt sexual gratification or stimulation of 1 or more of the persons involved. As used in this subdivision, "lascivious" means wanton, lewd, and lustful and tending to produce voluptuous or lewd emotions. Make does not include the creation of an identical reproduction or copy of child sexually abusive material within the same digital storage device or the same piece of digital storage media. The notice must contain, as particularly as is known to the defendant or the defendant's attorney, the names of witnesses to be called on behalf of the defendant to establish that defense.
The defendant's notice must include specific information as to the facts that establish that the depiction was not, in fact, created using a depiction of any part of an actual person under the age of Failure to file a timely notice in conformance with this subsection precludes a defendant from offering this defense. This immunity extends only to acts described in this subsection. Evidence is considered to be reasonably available to the defendant under this subsection if the prosecuting attorney provides an opportunity to the defendant and his or her attorney, and any person the defendant may seek to qualify as an expert witness at trial, to inspect, view, and examine that evidence at a facility approved by the prosecuting attorney.
Computer includes a computer game device or a cellular telephone, personal digital assistant PDA , or other handheld device. This subdivision does not apply if the identifying information is supplied by a person other than the disseminator. If a person is convicted of a second or subsequent offense under section c, the sentence imposed for a second or subsequent offense is a mandatory minimum sentence of not less than 5 years.
For the purposes of this section, an offense is considered a second or subsequent offense if, prior to conviction of the second or subsequent offense, the person has been convicted under section c or of another crime involving a sexual offense against a minor. Licensee does not include a hospital, as that term is defined in section of the public health code, MCL A conviction or sentence imposed for a violation of this chapter does not preclude a conviction or sentence for a violation of any other applicable law.
All persons within the jurisdiction of this state shall be entitled to full and equal accommodations, advantages, facilities and privileges of inns, hotels, motels, government housing, restaurants, eating houses, barber shops, billiard parlors, stores, public conveyances on land and water, theatres, motion picture houses, public educational institutions, in elevators, on escalators, in all methods of air transportation and all other places of public accommodation, amusement, and recreation, subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law and applicable alike to all citizens and to all citizens alike, with uniform prices.
Rooming facilities at educational, religious, charitable or nonprofit institutions or organizations, and restrooms and locker room facilities in places of public accommodation may be separated according to sex. In the event that any person violating this section is operating by virtue of a license issued by the state, or any municipal authority, the court, in addition to the penalty prescribed above, may suspend or revoke such license. Actions brought pursuant to rule 3. The prevailing party in the civil action shall be entitled to recover court costs and reasonable attorney fees.
The right of action under this subsection is unassignable. A plaintiff who prevails in a civil action brought pursuant to this section may recover both of the following:. Race or color not to disqualify for jury service. All contracts, agreements, understandings, and combinations made, entered into, or knowingly assented to, by and between any parties capable of making a contract or agreement which would be valid at law or in equity, the purpose or object or intent of which shall be to limit, control, or in any manner to restrict or regulate the amount of production or the quantity of any article or commodity to be raised, or produced by mining, manufacture, agriculture, or any other branch of business or labor, or to enhance, control or regulate the market price thereof, or in any manner to prevent or restrict free competition in the production or sale of any such article or commodity, shall be illegal and void, and every such contract, agreement, understanding, and combination shall constitute a criminal conspiracy.
And every person who, for himself or herself personally, or as a member, or in the name of a partnership, or as a member, agent, or officer of a corporation, or of any association for business purposes of any kind, who shall enter into or knowingly consent to any such void and illegal contract, agreement, understanding, or combination, shall be deemed a party to such conspiracy.
And the prosecution for offenses under this section may be instituted and the trial had in any county where any of the conspirators become parties to such conspiracy, or in which any 1 of the conspirators shall reside. Certain contracts illegal wherever made—Every contract, agreement, understanding, and combination declared void and illegal by the first section of this chapter shall be equally void and illegal within this state, whether made and entered into within or without the state.
Violation by corporation forfeits charter—Any corporation now or hereafter organized under the laws of this state, which shall enter into any contract, agreement, understanding or combination declared illegal and criminal by the first section of this chapter, or shall do any act towards or for the purpose of carrying the same into effect in whole or in part, and which shall not within 30 days from the time when this chapter shall take effect, withdraw its assent thereto and repudiate the same and file in the office of the secretary of state such refusal and repudiation under its corporate seal, shall forfeit its charter and all its rights and franchises thereunder.
Quo warranto against offending corporations—It shall be the duty of the attorney general upon his own relation, or upon the relation of any private person, whenever he shall have good reasons to believe that the same can be established by proof, to file an information in the nature of a quo warranto against any corporation offending against any of the provisions of this chapter; and thereupon the same proceedings shall be had as provided by chapter 38 of Act No.
A person shall not be excused from attending and testifying or producing any books, papers, or other documents before a court or magistrate upon an investigation, proceeding, or trial for a violation of this chapter on the ground that the testimony or evidence may tend to degrade or incriminate the person. Any person who conspires together with 1 or more persons to commit an offense prohibited by law, or to commit a legal act in an illegal manner is guilty of the crime of conspiracy punishable as provided herein:. The defendant shall establish by a preponderance of the evidence the affirmative defense under this subsection.
A person 17 years of age or older who recruits, induces, solicits, or coerces a minor less than 17 years of age to commit or attempt to commit an act that would be a felony if committed by an adult is guilty of a felony and shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than the maximum term of imprisonment authorized by law for that act.
The person may also be punished by a fine of not more than 3 times the amount of the fine authorized by law for that act. A A dental care corporation incorporated under Act No. B A health care corporation incorporated under the nonprofit health care corporation reform act, Act No.
C A health maintenance organization licensed under article 17 of the public health code, Act No. D An insurer as defined in section of the insurance code of , Act No. E A third party administrator operating under a certificate of authority issued by the commissioner pursuant to the third party administrator act, Act No. A Obtaining money, cash refund or credit account, credit, goods, services, or any other thing of value.
B Certifying or guaranteeing to a person or business the availability to the deviceholder of funds on deposit to honor a draft or check payable to the order of that person or business. C Providing the deviceholder access to a deposit account for the purpose of making deposits, withdrawing funds, transferring funds between deposit accounts, obtaining information pertaining to a deposit account, or making an electronic funds transfer as defined in section 3 4 of Act No. A person who has in his or her possession, or under his or her control, or who receives from another person a financial transaction device with the intent to use, deliver, circulate, or sell the financial transaction device, or to permit, cause, or procure the financial transaction device to be used, delivered, circulated, or sold, knowing the possession, control, receipt, use, delivery, circulation, or sale to be without the consent of the deviceholder, is guilty of a felony.
A person who delivers, circulates, or sells a financial transaction device which was obtained or held by that person under circumstances proscribed under section n, p, or v, or uses, permits, causes, or procures the financial transaction device to be used, delivered, circulated, or sold, knowing the device to have been obtained or held under circumstances proscribed under section n, p, or v is guilty of a felony. A person who, with intent to defraud, forges, materially alters, simulates, or counterfeits a financial transaction device is guilty of a felony.
Any person who sells or delivers goods or property or anything of value, or renders any service to any other person knowing that such other person has committed or is committing any act prohibited by this chapter shall be guilty of a felony. A person to whom a deviceholder presents a financial transaction device for the purpose of obtaining goods, property, services, or anything of value on credit, or for any purpose for which the device may be used, who, by using the financial transaction device, by forging or aiding in the forgery of the deviceholder's signature, or by filling out or completing an application or form to be furnished to the issuer of the financial transaction device, causes the deviceholder to be charged for a purchase or other transaction that was not authorized by the deviceholder, to be overcharged for a purchase or other transaction that was authorized by the deviceholder, or to otherwise incur a financial loss, is guilty of a felony.
A person who, knowingly and with intent to defraud, makes or causes to be made, directly or indirectly, a false statement in writing regarding his or her identity or that of any other person for the purpose of procuring the issuance of a financial transaction device, is guilty of a felony. Any person who shall commit the abominable and detestable crime against nature either with mankind or with any animal shall be guilty of a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 15 years, or if such person was at the time of the said offense a sexually delinquent person, may be punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for an indeterminate term, the minimum of which shall be 1 day and the maximum of which shall be life.
In any prosecution for sodomy, it shall not be necessary to prove emission, and any sexual penetration, however slight, shall be deemed sufficient to complete the crime specified in the next preceding section. Enterprise includes illicit as well as licit enterprises. As used in this chapter, "racketeering" means committing, attempting to commit, conspiring to commit, or aiding or abetting, soliciting, coercing, or intimidating a person to commit an offense for financial gain, involving any of the following:.
The court's authority under this subsection also includes, but is not limited to, the authority to do any of the following:. This subdivision does not apply to the extent that an order of dissolution or reorganization is preempted by chapter 7 of the national labor relations act, 29 USC to The court may base its determination on evidence in the trial record.
This day period shall begin to run after notice of forfeiture is given but before the money is deposited into a financial institution under subsection If the prosecuting agency fails to sustain its burden of proof in criminal proceedings under section i, the court shall order the return of the money, including any interest earned on money deposited into a financial institution under subsection To assist the court in determining whom to notify, the prosecuting agency shall conduct a search of county, state, and federal public records where notice of liens and security interests are normally recorded.
If the name and address of the person are not reasonably ascertainable or delivery of the notice cannot reasonably be accomplished, the notice shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the prosecution occurred for 10 successive publishing days. Proof of written notice or publication shall be filed with the court entering the order of criminal forfeiture. The petition shall be signed and sworn to by the petitioner and shall set forth the nature and extent of the petitioner's interest in the property, the date and circumstances of the petitioner's acquisition of the interest, any additional allegations supporting the claim, and the relief sought.
The petitioner shall furnish the prosecuting agency with a copy of the petition. The court may consolidate the hearings on all petitions filed by third party claimants under this section. At the hearing, the petitioner may testify and present evidence on his or her own behalf and may cross-examine witnesses. The prosecuting agency may present evidence and witnesses in rebuttal and in defense of the claim of the state to the property and may cross-examine witnesses. The court, in making its determination, shall consider the testimony and evidence presented at the hearing and the relevant portions of the record of the criminal proceeding that resulted in the order of criminal forfeiture.
In determining whom to notify under this subsection, the prosecuting agency shall conduct a search of county, state, and federal public records where notices of liens and security interests are normally recorded. Real property that is the primary residence of a dependent minor child of the owner is not subject to civil in rem forfeiture under this section and sections n to q. In making this determination, the court shall, as a matter of law, make a determination that the property constituted an interest in, means of control over, or influence over an enterprise involved in a violation of section i.
If the court finds that probable cause does not exist to believe the property is subject to forfeiture under this act, the court shall dismiss the plaintiff prosecuting agency's application and, if a civil in rem forfeiture proceeding has been initiated, shall dismiss the petition. If the court finds that probable cause does exist to believe the property is subject to forfeiture but there is not probable cause to believe that prior notice would result in loss or destruction of the property, the court shall order service on all persons known to have or claim an interest in the property before a further hearing on whether an order of seizure should issue.
If the court finds that there is probable cause to believe that the property is subject to forfeiture and to believe that prior notice would cause loss or destruction of the property, the court shall issue an order of seizure directing the sheriff or other law enforcement officer in the county where the property is found to seize it. The application shall be supported by a sworn affidavit setting forth probable cause for a civil in rem forfeiture action pursuant to sections m to q.
An order authorizing the filing of a lien notice may be issued upon a showing of probable cause to believe that the property is subject to civil in rem forfeiture under section m. When property is seized under this section, the seizing agency may do 1 or more of the following:. This day notice period is not jurisdictional. The prosecuting agency may move for an extension of the notice period for good cause shown. The prosecuting agency shall give the notice to each of the following persons:. If the name and address of the person are not reasonably ascertainable or delivery of the notice cannot reasonably be accomplished, the notice shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the personal or intangible property was seized or the real property is located for 10 successive publishing days.
Proof of written notice or publication shall be filed with the court having jurisdiction over the seizure or forfeiture. The prosecuting agency has the burden of proving both of the following by clear and convincing evidence:. In addition, the prosecuting agency shall reimburse the owner for reasonable attorney fees and damages related to towing costs, storage fees and expenses, foreclosure costs, and other similar expenses. If the name and address of the person are not reasonably ascertainable or delivery of the notice cannot reasonably be accomplished, the notice shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the personal property was seized or the real property is located for 10 successive publishing days.
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A new room temp. RTIL has been prepd. It was confirmed by NMR expts. A dark green, viscous liq. The eutectic compn. The viscosity and cond. The electrochem. This approach could circumvent the use of chromic acid for Cr electroplating, which would be a major environmental benefit. This method of using hydrated metal salts to form ionic liqs. Eutectic mixts. Their f. Deep Eutectic Solvents DES can be formed between a variety of quaternary ammonium salts and carboxylic acids. The phys. It is shown that the cond. The DES are also shown to be good solvents for metal oxides, which could have potential application for metal extn.
Maney Publishing. Efficient electropolishing of stainless steel is demonstrated in an ionic liq. The metal dissolves without prior passivation and no gassing is obsd. No dealloying of the substrate is obsd. The soly. The hydrogen bond donors used were urea, malonic acid, and ethylene glycol. The results obtained are compared with aq. Some correlation is obsd. Green Chem. A Lewis basic mixt. The effect of the cation on the partition coeff. Protocols were also investigated for the sepn. The efficient cationic functionalization of cellulose is demonstrated using an ionic liq.
All of the available OH groups on cellulose were modified. The same enthalpies were calcd. The results will be used to evaluate the amt. The temp. These molar heat capacities and enthalpies of fusion allow an evaluation of the amt. These results were compared with those calcd. The discrepancy between the calcd. FAB-MS anal.
Data on the viscosity, cond. The cond. Solvents for Synthesis and Catalysis. Chemical Reviews Washington, D. A review with refs. A review. Originating from electrochem. Whereas the main interest is still focussed on org. In this review article we give a short overview on physicochem. The focus is set on air and water stable ionic liqs. Hydrophobic ionic liqs. Other imidazolium molten salts with hydrophilic anions water-sol. The molten salts were characterized by NMR and elemental anal. Their d. The influence of the alkyl substituents in 1, 2, 3, and 4 5 -positions on these properties was scrutinized.
Viscosities as low as 35 cP [for 1-ethylmethylimidazolium bis[ trifluoromethyl sulfonyl]amide bis triflyl amide and trifluoroacetate] and conductivities as high as 9. The hydrophobic molten salts are promising solvents for electrochem. A new family of molten salts is reported, based on the N-alkyl, N-alkyl pyrrolidinium cation and the bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide anion. Some of the members of the family are molten at room temp. Of the room-temp. This highly conductive behavior is rationalized in terms of the role of cation planarity.
The salts also exhibit multiple cryst. ACS Symp. Molten salts have a long and important history in industrial chem. The "modern" history of ionic liqs. Since then basic research efforts have shown that ionic liqs. The most commonly used type of cation in ionic liqs. Elsevier B. ILs and ionic liq. Ionic metal complexes of imidazoles and N-heterocyclic carbenes possess the similar properties were also included. These types of ILs and ILCs were realized as potential solvents, catalysts, catalyst precursors and reagents for many org.
They also play key roles in material science. Many of these IL systems are air- and moisture stable and are considered as alternatives for air- and moisture sensitive chloroaluminate-based ILs. Some materials we would now recognize as ionic liqs. The quest for useful. Phase transitions, densities, electrical conductivities, and viscosities. Fannin, Armand A. The data were collected over wide temp. The transport properties are reported as specific and equiv. These data and the densities are interpreted in terms of a model of the structure of the binary melts.
The solid-liq. Zein El Abedin, S. Also, the electrodeposition of Se, In and Cu in the same ionic liq. The high thermal stability as well as the large electrochem. Gray Se can be obtained at temps. In with grain sizes between and nm was formed in the employed ionic liq. Also Cu I species can be introduced into the ionic liq. Cu with an av.
Physical properties. Activation energies for viscous flow and for specific and equiv. The Frenkel function is obeyed. The densities of ionic liq. EMIGaCl4 and its mixts. The values of apparent molar volume of the mixt. All results show that GaCl4- is sole anion in ionic liq. EMIGaCl4 and is predominant one in the mixt. In the current work, the cond. The data are fitted to hole theory, and it is proposed that the compn.
For the mixts. Predicting densities of nonconventional solvents like deep eutectic solvents DESs as a function of temp. Because of the nature of bonding existing between the salt and the hydrogen bond donor, conventional methods result in very large deviations. In this study, the d. Nine different salts:hydrogen bond donor combinations were selected to test this method.
The densities of all DESs were measured at a temp. The crit. The values of measured and predicted densities were compared and the av. New ionic liqs. These DESs have been synthesized by the reaction of phosphonium-based salts with different hydrogen bond donors. Many of these DESs have melting temps. Preliminary lab. Melting temp. The type of the salt and hydrogen bond donor and the mole ratio of both compds. Shahbaz, K.
Ghareh; Mjalli, F. Deep eutectic solvents DESs are considered as potential alternatives for ionic liqs. The evaluation of DESs as new generation of solvents for various practical application requires enough knowledge about some main phys. In this study, due to lack of data for DESs' refractive indexes, the refractive indexes of twenty four DESs based on ammonium and phosphonium salts were measured and predicted using at. The at. Subsequently, the refractive indexes of DESs were predicted using Lorentz-Lorenz equation through the calcd.
DESs' molar refractions and exptl. DESs' densities values. The abs. R2 value of 0. In addn. Moreover, the densities of DESs were also predicted using Lorentz-Lorenz equation employing the calcd. DESs' refractive indexes. The ARPE of 1. Bagh, F. Ghareh; Shahbaz, K. The evaluation of deep eutectic solvents DESs as a new generation of solvents for various practical application requires an insight of the main phys. In this study, the exptl. The results revealed that elec. The feasibility of using an artificial neural network ANN model to predict the elec.
A feed-forward back propagation neural network with 8 hidden neurons was successfully developed and trained with the measured elec. The results indicated that among the different networks tested, the network with 8 hidden neurons had the best prediction performance and gave the smallest value of Normalized Mean Square Error NMSE 0.
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The comparison of the predicted elec. Developing and characterizing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is one of the most important issues in chem. Compared to popular org. Compared to ionic liqs. An est. As no one phys. Information on the local microenvironment i. The four DESs as indicated by these probe responses are found to be fairly dipolar in nature.
The pyrene polarity scale, which is based on polarity-induced changes in vibronic bands, indicates reline, the DES composed of urea as the hydrogen bond donor, to be significantly more dipolar than the other three DESs.
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The mol. H-bonding and other specific solute-solvent interactions are found to play an important role in solvatochromic probe behavior for the four DESs. The cybotactic region of a probe dissolved in a DES affords information on the polarity of the DES towards solutes of similar nature and functionality. Hole theory assumes that on melting, an ionic material contains empty spaces that arise from thermally generated fluctuations in local d. The holes are of random size and location and undergo const.
The application of hole theory to modeling viscosity, while currently approx. To obtain optimum mobility the ions must be relatively small, but the liq. This can be obtained by producing a liq. This explains why for the alkyl imidazolium salts the optimum fluidity is obsd. Charge transport in an ambient-temp. This allows cond. The mechanism of charge transport is contrasted with that in high-temp. Ambient temp. An alternative approach to the formation of ionic liqs.
These liqs. In this study, less viscous liqs. The fluidity and transport of DESs are both affected by small changes in chem. Thus, the hole theory can be used to design DESs with decreased viscosity and increased cond. These changes can be quite significant particularly at ambient temp. The diffusion coeff. The diffusion coeffs. This observation is consistent with the fact that ionic liqs. Measured diffusion coeff. This interpretation suggests that a model by which a migrating species can jump between voids or holes within the liq.
Deep Eutectic Solvents DESs are a novel class of solvents with potential industrial applications in sepn. Macroscopic phys. Several choline chloride based DESs were chosen as exptl. The increasing temp. The self-diffusion coeffs. The results also highlight that the mol. While for ethaline, glyceline and reline the choline cation diffuses slower than the assocd.
This is believed to be due to the formation of extensive dimer chains between malonic acid mols. Diffusion and viscosity data were combined together to gain insights into the diffusion mechanism, which is the same as for ionic liqs. The cyclic voltammetric results identified the potential domains of electrochem. The differential capacitance-potentials, C E , curves for the elec. The structure of the interfaces probably is dominated by adsorption of choline cations at large neg.
A review is given on the area of inorg. It focuses primarily on the literature published during the calendar year but more generally it discusses the lack of information and the problems assocd. The applications in which inorg. An understanding of the activity of a solute in soln. In this work we det. Some solns. The first electrochem. Speciation resulting from the unusual chem. Examples are given of how these differences can be exploited in technol.
The electrodeposition of Zn was studied in two deep eutectic solvents. Unlike the metals studied to date in these liqs. Changing the concn. Double layer capacitance studies showed differences between the two liqs. The differences in Zn morphol. Here the authors describe for the 1st time the electrolytic deposition of Cu and Cu composites from a soln. The deposition kinetics and thermodn. The mechanism of Cu nucleation was studied using chronoamperometry and progressive nucleation leads to a bright nano-structured deposit. But instantaneous nucleation, at lower concns.
This work also pioneers the use of the electrochem. This technique allows the 1st in situ quantification or particulate inclusion. The compn. Also the majority of material was dragged onto the surface rather than settling on to it. The distribution of the composite material is even throughout the coating. This technol. The incorporation of micron-sized particulates into ionic liqs. This observation is both unusual and surprising; the authors explain this here in terms of an increase in the free vol.
Silver is an important metal for electronic connectors, however, it is extremely soft and wear can be a significant issue. This paper describes how improved wear resistant silver coatings can be obtained from the electrolytic deposition of silver from a soln. An up to fold decrease in the wear vol. The work also addresses the fundamental aspect of speciation of silver chloride in soln. The size but not the nature of the composite particles is seen to change the morphol. Grain sizes are shown to be consistent with previous nucleation studies.
The addn. Electron Spectrosc. Soft x-ray spectroscopies give specific information about the electronic structure around light elements. The high absorption of soft x-rays by almost every mol. Solids with high vapor pressure and liqs. This work explores the use of ionic liqs. N 1s spectra are reported of ionic liq. While there are significant problems with the signal of the solvent, the results do show that it is possible to detect solute signals, and further to see spectral changes attributed to solvent-solute interactions.
The greenness, or lack thereof, of various ionic liq. Elsevier Ltd. They tend to be denoted as "green solvents", largely because of their low vapor pressure. In recent years toxicity and biotoxicity of ionic liqs. In this paper the use of ionic liqs. Due to their low toxicity and ready biodegradability, these deep eutectic solvents are promising for the electrodeposition of metals. The influence of the use of these liqs. Drag-out was found to be the most influencing parameter on the environmental impact of the process, as it is three times higher compared to classical solns.
There are no major changes needed in the rinsing configuration of classic electroplating plants, and ion exchange to remove the metal out of the waste water was not hindered by the presence of the ionic liq. The formation of byproducts during the deposition of metals has to be further investigated and evaluated in consideration of the environmental impact. The formation of several decompn.
Possible mechanisms for the formation of these products are given: some products involve a reaction at either the anode or the cathode, while others can be explained by consecutive reactions of reaction products formed at both electrodes. This is remarkable as evolution of Cl gas at the anode is not obsd. The formation of the chlorinated products is ascribed to the existence of the Cl3- ion in the soln. The presence of the Cl3- ion was obsd. The presence of chlorinated products gives rise to a larger environmental impact and higher risks for health and safety, and it questions the greenness of these ionic liq.
To reduce the decompn. Their influence on the formation of 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane was quantified. However, the addn. H2O reduced the formation of chlorinated products. Although the extremely low vapor pressure of ionic liqs. One example where this can be expected to occur is the application of ionic liqs.
During industrial use, ionic liqs. Economically and ecol. The use of pressure driven membrane processes, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and pervaporation, as a possibility to recycle ionic liqs. Ethaline a deep eutectic formed between choline chloride and ethylene glycol was used to perform these tests and the results were compared with those found in the literature. The osmotic pressure was detd. For concg. Only a 5-fold concn.
Pervaporation was studied as an alternative. It was found to have limited usability for this application as the water content is too high. For low water contents, pervaporation is applicable although the flux is very low due to the presence of the ionic liq. The necessary membrane area would be very high and makes pervaporation rather impractical. In continuation of investigation for environmentally benign protocol for new solvents termed deep eutectic solvents DESs , it is herein reported results concerning the toxicity and cytotoxicity of choline chloride ChCl based DESs with 4 hydrogen bond donors including glycerin, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and urea.
The toxicity was investigated using 2 Gram pos. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using the Artemia salina leach. It was found that there was no toxic effect for the tested DESs on all of the studied bacteria confirming their benign effects on these bacteria. Nevertheless, it was found that the cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components e.
For our best knowledge this is the 1st time that toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs were studied. The toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs varied depending on the structure of components. Careful usage of the terms non-toxicity and biodegradability must be considered. More investigation on this matter is required. In this work, the cytotoxicity and toxicity of phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents DESs with three hydrogen bond donors, namely glycerin, ethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol were investigated.
The cytotoxicity effect was tested using brine shrimp Artemia salina. The toxicity was investigated using the two Gram pos. The cytotoxicity of tested DESs was much higher than that of their individual components, indicating their toxicol. It was also found that there was toxic effect on the studied bacteria, indicating their potential application as anti-bacterial agents.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the cytotoxicity and toxicity of phosphonium-based DESs were studied. There is a growing interest in the use of ionic liqs. This study is an initial assessment of the application of two ionic liqs. These ionic liqs. In order to assess the lubrication performance of the ionic liqs. Initial tests conducted at a sliding speed of 0. It was also obsd. Skopek, Magdalena A. The electrooxidn.
The oxidn. Deep eutectic solvent DES is a new class of solvents typically formed by mixing choline chloride with hydrogen bond donors such as amines, acids, and alcs. Most DES's are non-reactive with water, biodegradable, and have acceptable toxicity profiles. Urea-choline chloride and malonic acid-choline chloride eutectic systems were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry DSC and thermal microscopy. A potential new urea-choline chloride cocrystal with a m.
The formation of this cocrystal suggests that DES should not be universally explained by simple eutectic melting, and may be useful in guiding the search for new DES systems. The lack of nucleation of the malonic acid-choline chloride system prohibited the construction of a phase diagram for this system using DSC. We also investigated possible uses of DES in solubilizing poorly sol. For five poorly sol.
Thus, DES can be a promising vehicle for increasing exposure of poorly sol. Serrano, M. Concepcion; Gutierrez, Maria C. Luisa; del Monte, Francisco. Poly octanediol-co-citrate elastomers contg. The preservation of lidocaine integrity resulted in high-capacity drug-eluting elastomers. We utilize a quaternary ammonium salt-deriv.
CI which is a eutectic mixt. Such eutectic compd. Current-voltage characteristics of the G. The comparable cell performance together with all the above advantages makes G. Gutierrez, Maria C. The described is the synthesis of a deep-eutectic-solvent DES based on pTsOH and CCl, which, after polycondensation reactions and subsequent carbonization, resulted in the formation of hierarchical porous bimodal, with micro- and macropores carbon monoliths. FA condensation and as a structure-directing agent of the resulting carbons.
The mechanism governing the micropore formation was intrinsic of FA polycondensation, whereas that of macropores formation was based on DES segregation in a spinodal-like decompn. The possibility of recovering and recycling DESs makes them green and esp. Eutectic Based Ionic Liquids. Smith, E. A review on the successful scale-up of five ionic liq.
Metal finishing demonstrator technologies were developed based on ionic liq. Some of these systems can be considered as 'drop-in' replacement technologies for existing aq. Electroplating Using Ionic Liquids. Where are they now? The main focal area of the research into deep eutectic solvents DESs is currently the incorporation of metal ions into soln. Although difficult to compete economically with existing electroplating systems for common metal applications, DESs can provide suitable media for the many technol.
ECS Trans. Electrochemical Society.
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Authors describe the electrolytic deposition of a range of metallic coatings, alloys and composites from room temp. We show that some of these systems can be considered as "drop-in" replacement technologies for existing aq. The electrodeposition of most of technol. Despite the fact that electrodeposition was the 1st application studied in these liqs. This review addresses the practical and theor. It details the current understanding of the phys. The effect of compn. This review concs.
These so-called eutectic based ionic liqs. The review highlights the technol. Reported here are results of a systematic study into the electrolytic deposition of Zn metal from ionic liqs. Cyclic voltammetry and gravimetric acoustic impedance spectroscopy EQCM techniques were used to probe mass-transfer and charge-transfer mechanisms.
Nucleation in the urea based liq. The electrodeposition of metals using ionic liqs. Recent developments have taken these novel electrolytes from lab. One of the factors limiting the development into practical plating systems is the understanding of how brighteners function. The authors describe the addn. The structure of the Zn deposits is controlled by double layer properties and probably the brightening effect of ethylene diamine and NH3 are caused by their ability to inhibit the adsorption of chloride at the electrode surface.
The deposition of most metals using ionic liqs. The additives used in this study produce macro-cryst. Higher Education Press. The electrode processes during copper electrodeposition with ionic liqs. Reline is a com. This new proposed method of copper deposition is an ecol. Cyclic voltammetry investigations were conducted at and K in Reline deep eutectic solvent with single salt CuCl generally in 0.